How to upgrade Ubuntu Mate on the Raspberry Pi

Because of a remake from xenial to bionic, it’s not able to update automatically, you will have to change the source file list.  Before you make the change make sure your current version is updated and disk space to do an upgrade. You can

To update:

sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade
Optional: To clean up unused packages no longer needed
sudo apt-get autoremove

Once you have all up to date, then try running apt dist-upgrade
You should see everything up to date and not able to see 18.04 LTS option

Now, modify the sources list via the editor of your choice /etc/apt/sources.list change all xenial to bionic, and then save the file

Before the sources file change screenshot:

After the sources file change screenshot:

Then check for the updates:
sudo apt update

After that, you need to remove a package from your system that prevents the upgrade:
sudo apt remove python3-aptdaemon.pkcompat

If you try to before removing python3-aptdaemon.pkcompat, you will get this error:

To start the upgrade

all packages on your system will be upgraded to Bionic versions.
sudo apt upgrade && sudo apt dist-upgrade

You might get some options to choose for some settings to be upgraded or keep the current version of packages. Default is N, I have chosen Y

Once the upgrade is completed, Your Raspberry Pi will need to reboot. You should see a new version of Ubuntu MATE 18.04.

Some notes:

You might see around 68% looks like it’s stuck, but it’s just taking a long time

To check the version:
lsb_release -a

You might still need to fix some other packages that need to be upgraded or replaced if they don’t support the bionic version of it.

How to Uninstall Windows Defender from Windows Server 2016

Most servers have 3rd party Antivirus solution, so you don’t need or want Windows Defender on your server. Here is how to uninstall it, so you can free up the resources of your server. You can remove via server manager or using PowerShell.

You can run this command to check if Windows Defender is running:

sc query Windefend

        TYPE : 10  WIN32_OWN_PROCESS
        STATE : 4  RUNNING
                                (STOPPABLE, NOT_PAUSABLE, ACCEPTS_SHUTDOWN)
        WIN32_EXIT_CODE    : 0  (0x0)
        SERVICE_EXIT_CODE  : 0  (0x0)
        CHECKPOINT         : 0x0
        WAIT_HINT          : 0x0

If you get this message, which means Windows Defender is not running your system:

[SC] EnumQueryServicesStatus:OpenService FAILED 1060:
The specified service does not exist as an installed service.

or check via GUI: from Windows server manager

Remove just Windows Defender GUI:

Run PowerShell in Administrator, which will remove GUI only:

Uninstall-WindowsFeature -Name Windows-Defender-GUI

To completely remove Windows Defender

Uninstall-WindowsFeature -Name Windows-Defender

Then, just restart your server to finish the process

You can check if your Windows Defender is really removed from your server by going back to server manager

You can also check it by going to Settings>Update & Security>Windows Defender

Just in case you need to re-install Windows Defender back:

To install Windows Defender back for whatever reason, just service:

Install-Windows-Feature -Name Windows-Defender

To install Windows Defender with GUI:

Install-WindowsFeature -Name Windows-Defender-GUI

That’s it, hope you find it useful

How to be safe and stay alert of scams

There are many types of scams that happen around holidays, many are via email, text or phone calls.  So many robocalls collecting information and sending to unknown people, then real people follow up with the targeted user/company to get more information.  So please be careful while you shop online and unknown websites or even known websites that look official but are fake, they take your info then redirect to official websites.  The best way to stay safe in this technology age is to keep online activities limited and only download or use apps that are official and keep it up to date.  There is no way to be 100 % safe since everything is connected to the internet these days and controlled via software, so it’s just coded for good or used as bad are depends on usage and what you do with data.

Email Scam:

Many ways you can tell if emails are legit or fake:

  • Just looking at the text of the email, it may look like the real person writing, but they are generic text generated by robots automatically, each time you reply to it, they get more info about you. 
  • A signature will be generic as well
  • The person address to could be generic, sometimes even typo in the name
  • When you move your mouse over the username/email it should display a full real email address or when you reply it will show different email addresses.
  • Some have very small text asking to take action fast, reply and confirm your info with urgent or don’t tell anyone
  • Many more similar messages which you can spot it if you look carefully

Text messages:

Don’t click on them unless you are making changes to your account and you know it

  • With links to reset your password or update your password
  • Track your packages
  • There is a change in shipping, here is to update
  • Check this photo/Video out
  • etc.…

Phone calls:

Don’t give any personal info over the phone just hang up. Then if you think it’s legit you start the call with your Bank, Credit card, Vendor or whatever account/service is effected directly. Also if it’s a bank or tax-related normally they don’t contact you via phone, they will send you regular mail.

  • To confirm your name/address
  • Act as FBI, Police, company you may know
  • Your package has issues that need to verify …
  • You’re a bank account is locked, need to confirm …
  • Want to send you free info can you give your email address, etc…

Apps on your phone can be hacked which steals your data, so void downloading apps you don’t use/need or unsure of it and if you are using make sure they get updated. The donation phone call, it’s very hard to tell if it’s legit, so let them send you via regular mail if they ask to give your address info don’t if they found your phone number then you can find your address too. So, please be very careful of any emails, text messages or phone calls around holiday time, many scams happen.  They may seem like it’s coming from the known person.  Just don’t click anything you don’t know and if someone calls you to verify your personal information, they may act like Bank or Government, just hang up the call. Keep eyes on activity of your Finance info for Bank, Credit card, etc….

How to set Time Zone in osTicket

How to setup Time Zone in osTicket, which is very important to have your system work correctly.  If the time zone is incorrect tickets get mixed up marked wrong data/time, SLA, etc.. So here are few places you can check to confirm your system is correctly setup.  I am using an Ubuntu system other Linux system works similar path might be different.  If your time shows incorrect you should also check to make sure you have installed the PHP Extensions “Intel” which effects the time you can check it at /scp/system.php. There at least 4 places you can set the time zone, I am listing it here, your settings may vary.

Option 1: from osTicket admin panel System Settings and Preferences


Default settings: Locale Defaults

If you need to customize:

Option 2: via php.ini file

Search or in your file under Date and just uncomment date.timezone =
Put your time zone name after = America/New_York (This would be mine)

Timezone name list:

Sample php.ini file looks like
; Defines the default timezone used by the date functions
;date.timezone =

Option 3: via MySQL directly on the database

To see what’s currently is:

mysql -u YourDataBaseUserName -p -e “SELECT NOW();”

To see your current timezone within mysql: use the following command:

mysql> select now();

SHOW VARIABLES LIKE ‘%time_zone%’;

SELECT @@GLOBAL.time_zone, @@SESSION.time_zone;

To set a time zone or a value: make sure to choose your own time zone:

SET time_zone = America/New_York;

SET GLOBAL time_zone = ‘+8:00’;

SET GLOBAL time_zone = ‘ America/New_York ‘;

SET @@global.time_zone = ‘+00:00’;

To configure the time zone in Ubuntu system:

 sudo dpkg-reconfigure tzdata

Restart the server or you can restart Apache 2 and MySQL:
/etc/init.d/mysql restart

Option 4: Agent profile, which does not affect system-wide

osTicket Agent profile: Agent panel -> Profile -> Preferences -> Localization

That’s it, check the logs of PHP, web server and osTicket if you having any issues, that will give you some more clue.

Issues you might have:

Time issues: if Intel PHP Extension is not installed:

Once you installed Intel PHP extension then, restart your apache (your webserver) service, if everything goes well it should be fine:

How to upgrade osTicket to 1.14.1

osTicket v1.14.1 is released today November 21, 2019, it’s open-source ticket system. You can find full release notes at For osTicket version 1.14.1 PHP version 7.0 to 7.3, 7.3 is recommended. The process is the same as before just make sure you have a good backup of database and osTicket files.

The Upgrade process is very simple, I am doing 1.12 to 1.14.1

  • Make sure you have a good backup of Database and files of osTicket
  • Then put the system in the offline mode: by going to URL of your osTicket support ticket /scp/settings.php
  • Download the new version from and choose the osTicket Core, v1.14.1 (Latest Release) don’t download any Languages or plugins, you can add them after to void issues with the upgrade.
  • Upload to your server v. 1.14.1 and replace current files/folders from the Upload folder from your downloaded, and exclude the script folder/files. Also, Maintain the directory hierarchy any changes could cause an issue with the upgrade process or something might not work well.
    • Optional: Script folder only needed if you are using remote piping, so if you are not using remote piping don’t upload.
  • Make sure NOT to replace your \include\ost-config.php which does not include in the download.

Make sure you have the correct permission, then go to the URL/SCP of the osTicket system and log in, you should see osTicket Upgrader, make sure your Prerequisites are all good, if any errors correct it, then click Start Upgrade Now

Then you will get Migrate to osTicket v1.14.1, click Upgrade now
My screenshot shows 1.14 because at the time 1.14.1 was not out. If you were to do an upgrade from 1.14 to 1.14.1 there is no database change so you will not see the upgrade screen.

If everything goes well you should see Upgrade Completed! screen

After the installation

Delete the /setup folder and update any customization you may have, test it, then once all is good you can put the system back online. Also, remove the write permission to \include\ost-config.php to secure your config. If you have customized PHP core files, those need to be re-applied after the upgrade. Also, make sure your plugins are good, if needed upgrade do so, make sure it supported version. Good luck

Also make sure to enable new feature Link and Merge tickets, by default it’s off

If you are looking at a list of open tickets you will see two new options:

Link: The ability to link tickets and Merge – the ability to merge tickets

Documentation on how to use it:

If you have click on the ticket, then option for Link and Merge ticket are shown when clicked on the arrow next to gear icon:

Official documentation:
Link to: Changelog and Community forum: