How to install Ubuntu 18.04 Desktop

How to install Ubuntu 18.04 Desktop fresh using Hyper-V manager on Windows 10 Pro to Quick Create. There are many ways to install it, this process is very simple, you could do manual, which requires you to download the Ubuntu 18.04 image, then go through the process of installation. This will give you options to use your Ubuntu virtual desktop and get a feel of Linux system, when not in use, turn it off, so it goes not take resources of your system.

Open your Hyper-V Manger

Right click on Hyper-V host and choose Quick Create …

Then you will get option to select the Operating system, choose Ubuntu 18.04 LTS, and click Craete Virtual Machine. If you want to rename your VM, you could click on More options or you can rename later.

Then it will go through downloading the Ubuntu 18.04 LTS image, depending on your internet speed it may take awhile.

Then it will go through the automatic process of creating VM:

  • Verifying image
  • Extracting disk from an image archive
  • Creating a Hard drive
  • Virtual machine create successfully

Then you should see option to connect to your new Ubuntu 18.04 Desktop, click Connect

Click on Power button or Start to turn on your Ubuntu 18.04 server

You should see starting and then Welcome screen. Select your Language then click Continue

Select Keyboard layout, then click Continue

Select your Timezone, then click Continue

Fill in the login info, this would be admin account to login to your server, then click Continue

Then it will go through the System configuration automatically

Then you should see login screen enter your user/password created earlier

You should see your New Ubuntu 18.04 Desktop, it gives you few tips on What’s new in Ubuntu, go though and start using your Ubuntu Virtual desktop.

You can start using your Ubuntu 18.04 virtual desktop, see tips and tricks of common things you may find helpful, if this is your first time use of Ubuntu system.

Tips and Tricks:

Remove icon from favorites

Just right click icon you want to remove and choose Remove from Favorites

Opened applications

You will see little dot next to the application, you tell you that application is open.

More than one Application open

You will see more than one little dots, if you click on it, it will give you thumb nail view of and you will be able to switch it or close the application.

To see all opened Applications

Click on the Activities and it will give you thumbnail view of all opened applications, you can switch to it, or close it by click on X.

To see Applications

You can click on 9 dotted icon bottom left hand side, you will see all application or Frequent used

  • Software – where you can install new applications
  • Software & Updates – Where you can install updates and third-part software options
  • Startup Application – gives you list of application at start of your Ubuntu system
  • Settings – list of all settings like control panel
  • Files – your documents or personal files
  • Rhythmbox – is default music player

Shutdown Ubuntu Virtual Machine

Click on the Arrow on top left, you will see Power icon, if you want to just lock it, click on Lock icon.

When you click on Power icon it will give you option to Restart/Power off or cancel

Change User info

If you need to change user name or any setting, click on the Arrow next to your user name it will give you option to make changes

Change default applications

Click on Settings>Default Applications>Then change it to what you like



How to setup OpenSupports Ticket System

OpenSupports is an open source ticket system, very simple to setup and use. Here I will go through setting up step by step. I am assuming you have your server is set up with correct permission. You will need to able to create database and upload installation files to your server. The installation has 7 steps it will go through and check requirements, and settings as it goes to the next step. This one is a very very simple Ticket system.

Server Requirements

PHP 5.6+
MySQL 4.1+
PDO Extension
Apache 2.4+

Installation of OpenSupports

You can start by downloading the OpenSupports ticket system from https://www.opensupports.com/download/

Once you have download the OpenSupports ticket system, then upload to your server and go to URL of your OpenSupports, you should see Step 1 of 7 Select the language and click Next

Then it will check for the Server requirements, if you see any error or missing requirement, install it then click Refresh, once all good, then click Next

You can fill in MySQL server info, at this point create a database if you have not yet, then fill in info below and click Next

  • MySQL database name: this can be left blank and it will generate automatic
  • MySQL server port (this can be left blank (default port is 3306)
  • MySQL user:
  • MySQL password:

Then select the option if you want your user to access and be able to register it, it’s toggle on/off, make selection, then click Next

Fill in the name of your ticket system, Check box if you want your user to attach a file to ticket and email server info (option to confirm SMTP connection test, to make sure your email server can communicate), then click Next

Admin account name, email and password, fill in info, make sure it’s strong and keep it safe, you will use this account to make changes to your system. Once you have filled in info, click Next
Then it will go through installation and redirect to login page

This is login page where you will enter your admin login info you choose in your last step.
User URL will be yourdomain
Admin URL will be yourdomain/admin

Once you are logged in you will see Dashboard of your new Ticket System, where you can make changes, add user/agents, etc…

That’s it, very simple ready to use your OpenSupports open source ticket system. If you are looking for more feature you can use another open source ticket system called osTickets, I have written a post on how to install osTicket on Ubuntu, enjoy it



How to upgrade osTicket to 1.11

Finally, osTicket v1.11 is released open source ticket system, it has lots of new feature people been waiting for a long time. You can find official documents and a full list of all the features on here. Most important issues people had was PHP version too old in 1.10.4.  The osTicket v1.11 supports PHP version v5.6-v7.2.

How to upgrade from 1.10.4 to 1.11

  1. Make sure you have a good backup of Database and files of osTicket
  2. Then put the system in the offline mode: by going to /scp/settings.php
  3. Download the new version from https://osticket.com/download/ and choose the osTicket Core, v1.11 (Latest Release)
  4. Upload to your server v. 1.11 and replace current files/folders from Upload folder from your downloaded, and exclude the script folder/files

  5. Make sure you have the correct permission, then go to the URL/SCP of the osTicket system and login, you should see osTicket Upgrader, make sure your Prerequisites are all good, if any errors correct it, then click Start Upgrade Now

  6. Then you should see Apply updates to database stream: core, click Upgrade Now

  7. If everything went well you should see Upgrade Completed

  8. Delete the /setup folder and update any customization you may have, test it, then once all is good you can put the system back online

That’s it if you have customized PHP core files, those needs to be re-applied after the upgrade. Also, make sure your plugins are good, if needed upgrade do so, make sure it supports the new version. one more thing, if using Language packs, you can find them at the osTicket website, those do needs to be updated.   You will find many solutions to the problem in a forum where people report and help out each other. Please read your error message and logs of your system web server, PHP, osTicket, it gives many ideas about why things are not working. Many of them due to the PHP version not supported. If you were to get help from the forum, please include your system information, like osTicket, PHP version, web server, and remember forum support is free, so don’t order/demand to fix your issues.  They do offer paid support if you wish to pay for it.  Thank you very much to the osTicket team for their hard work on keeping osTicket System up to date.



Encrypt TLS-SNI-01 validation is reaching end-of-life

If you are using Let’s Encrypt certification and have received an email to take action on renewal of your certificate.  That’s because lets Encrypt had announced last October 2018, that they will end support for TLS-SNI-01 validation method on February 13, 2019.  You need to update your ACME client to use an alternative validation method alternative validation method: HTTP-01, DNS-01 or TLS-ALPN-01. If no action taken you may have out-dated certificate for your domain.

To check your certbot version:

certbot –version

If have your server up to update, then the version should be 0.28.  If not you can upgrade your Certbot at https://certbot.eff.org/.   It will ask you to pick your software and system and it will give you detail documentation on how to upgrade, baased on your version of software/system.

To install for Apache, you can run this command:

sudo apt-get install python-certbot-apache

To test do a renewal dry run:

sudo certbot renew –dry-run

If everything goes well you should see Congratulation, all renewals succeeded, if it fails then you need to fix it. Take a look at log, firewall to make sure it’s not been blocked and try again.

Here is a link from Let’s Encrypt Community Support on How to stop using TLS-SNI-01 with Certbot Please update your server certificate to keep it secure.



How to upgrade Ubuntu 14.04 to 16.04

If you are still running Ubuntu server 14.04, which will be End of Life this Aril 2019, so you should upgrade to 16.04 or 18.04. You can check out Ubuntu Release dates at https://wiki.ubuntu.com/Releases Even though Linux is more secure, that does not mean it should not be kept up to date, to keep your data safe. Longer you keep put out the updates harder it gets, due to many changes on each upgrade. You can check out my post on How to secure your Ubuntu server. Make sure you have a good backup and your backup is tested to be sure data you are backup are good. If you have an option you can do an upgrade on a test server and work out any issues, that way when you do upgrade on production system it goes smooth.

Check list before starting upgrade process

  • Data backed up and verified
  • Make sure your application supports newer packages versions
  • List of application/services so it can be tested after the upgrade
  • Direct access to the server, remote session will give you an error
  • Stopping application/services, not required but if dealing with a database it’s safer
  • Double check storage space for an upgrade to download/install

Login to server directly to do the upgrade
Command: sudo do-release-upgrade

It will go through a list of currently installed packages and then let you choose if you want to go for the upgrade or not.  If you need more details you should press d otherwise press y and ENTER

You may get a message like this select Yes, so if any services needed to be restarted it will automatically without asking you each time. It will start the process of removing obsolete packages, downloading, installing and setting up automatically, unless you have chosen No.

You may get this message and you can make your own choice to keep current version or install newer, you can select to show differences between the versions

It will go though upgrade process, then if everything goes well you should see message System upgrade is complete, then restart by pressing y and Enter key, so your server can restart to finish upgrading.

If everything went well you should see login screen

After an upgrade, you should do the following

  • This will check for any updates:
    • sudo apt-get update
  • This will install any updates that it found:
    • sudo apt upgrade
  • This will remove any packages no longer needed:
    • sudo apt-get autoremove 
  • Then check your application/services to make sure they are running and if there any errors fix it.

That’s it, hope this helps out someone out there, good luck

Common issues and solutions:

If you are remotely doing upgrade you will get this warning, if something goes wrong with your SSH connection while you are in the middle of an upgrade, then you would have issues getting into your server

You may have issues with PHP version, most likely you may have been running version 5.6, installing the PHP7.0 might fix your issues or newer version:

sudo apt-get install -y libapache2-mod-php7.0